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Application solution of wear metal element analysis in lubricating oil


Oil is divided into three categories: lubricating oil, hydraulic oil, fuel oil.They play a very important role in equipment.For example, the lubricating oil is the “blood” of the engine, which plays multiple roles of lubrication, cooling, rust prevention, cleaning and sealing, etc., and the pollutants that contaminate the lubricating oil may block the oil filter and oil jet hole, making the oil pressure drop or even oil shortage.Oxidation or nitration of lubricating oil will accelerate the corrosion of friction pair surface.The change of lubricating oil viscosity will cause the decline of lubrication performance;These performance changes further cause a variety of engine failures, such as: engine vibration, abnormal rotation speed, oil consumption, noise, automatic engine shutdown, holding shaft, transmission shaft torsion and so on.Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the oil, monitor the condition of the equipment, predict the fault in advance, or diagnose the fault, so as to improve the reliability and maintenance level of the equipment.

Different types of equipment failures occur, with wear and tear being the most common.Information indicates that 60-80% of equipment damage is caused by various forms of wear and tear.This is because two mechanical parts in contact with each other inevitably cause continuous loss and damage of surface materials when they move relative to each other.The oil in the mechanical system can carry rich information about the wear state of the mechanical friction pair, and through oil analysis technology, the equipment can be monitored and fault diagnosed.The oil analysis technology is to obtain the lubrication and wear state of the tribology system of the equipment by analyzing the performance change of the oil of the monitored equipment and the information of the wear particles it carries, so as to build a bridge between the condition monitoring and maintenance management of the equipment.




Sources of contaminants in lubricants

The main sources of pollution are as follows:

① Different processing technology, different raw materials, the production of lubricating oil composition (such as gum, asphalt and other compounds content) is also different.

② The equipment for storing, transporting and adding oil materials is not clean, causing oil pollution.

③ Due to storage, transport, add oil careless, causing artificial pollution.

④ Metal shavings formed by friction between components of the lubricating oil system and gum and carbon deposits formed by oxidation of lubricating oil.

⑤ Poor compatibility between lubricating oil and mechanical parts causes component corrosion and produces corrosion products.

⑥ In the process of engine production and repair, pollutants remain in the lubricating oil system due to unclean cleaning.



Source of wear elements in general equipment

Generally, there are three types of metal components in lubricating oil: wear element, pollution element and additive element. In the wear fault diagnosis, the change rule of wear element is mainly concerned, while in the analysis of oil quality, more attention is paid to the loss of external pollution element and additive.Specific categories are as follows:

  1. Iron: body, cylinder liner, valve, piston ring, bearing, bearing ring, pin, etc.

    Silver: bearing retainer, plunger pump, piston pin, etc.

    Aluminum: gasket, gasket, gasket, bearing retainer, planetary gear, etc.

    Chrome: surface metal, sealing ring, bearing retainer, etc.

    Copper: thrust bearing, oil cooler, gear, valve, gasket, etc.

    Nickel: bearing material, valve material.

    Lead: bearing materials, seals.

    Silicon: dust and additives brought in by air.

    Tin: bearing material, liner material, piston pin, piston ring, oil seal, etc.

    Sodium: cooling system leaks, grease.

    Zinc: additives, brass parts, grease.

    Manganese: valves, nozzles, exhaust and intake systems.

    Calcium: oil additives, fats and oils.


The function and function of oil analysis and detection technology

Oil analysis detection technology is based on the fact that because of the machine parts of the friction pair interaction, will produce tiny wear particles, the wear particles in lubricating system under the action of suspension in the oil, wear and tear down the particles contain important information of the wear status of the equipment, if can effectively analyze these types of wear particles, quantity, composition and its change rule, you can judge the mechanical parts wear state of friction pair.


Basic functions of oil analysis

Oil analysis is through the equipment of oil system: lubrication system, hydraulic system, fuel system sampling analysis.To diagnose equipment and oil state of effective means.It is similar to how doctors diagnose a person’s health based on the results of tests on body fluids such as blood.Through oil analysis, the machine condition can be monitored in real time, providing accurate first-hand data for equipment operation, maintenance and management.


The following functions can be achieved by monitoring the equipment through oil analysis:

Fault diagnosis of equipment: possible abnormal wear and failure can be predicted through various boundary values to avoid major accidents and reduce the failure rate;Monitor equipment status, improve operation safety, reduce unexpected downtime and improve equipment availability.This is the main function of oil analysis and monitoring.

Correctly determine the life of the oil.The main factors affecting oil change include oil quality, sulfur content of fuel, working environment and oil consumption.There are two kinds of disadvantages of regular oil change: if the oil change is too late, the machine may be damaged, causing heavy losses;If the oil is changed too early, the oil that could have been used can be treated as waste oil, resulting in oil waste.

③ Study the wear rule and the wear mechanism, understand the material type, heat treatment method, machining accuracy and other aspects of the improvement effect, to provide a basis for the improvement of design.

Correctly specify equipment run-in specifications.Most of the previous run-in specifications used empirical data, lack of scientific basis.Using oil analysis technology in bench test can scientifically determine run-in specification, effectively shorten run-in period and save resources.

⑤ Determination of oil pollution: water and dust into the oil has great harm to equipment, through oil analysis and monitoring can detect the degree of oil pollution, so as to timely take countermeasures.

⑥ Understand the loss of additives in the oil, so as to timely supplement additives or replace new oil.

⑦ The correct equipment overhaul cycle, save maintenance costs, less spare parts inventory, greatly reduce operating costs, extend the service life of equipment.




Edx-300 special X fluorescence analyzer for lubricating oil wear metal



    Edx-300 lube oil wear metal special X fluorescence analyzer is advanced technology level of high precision X fluorescence analyzer.It is mainly used for testing ships, vehicles, machinery, engines, propellers, bearing, gear box lubricating oil wear metal elements and the fast and exact analysis of additive elements, can analyze the Ca, Fe, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and zinc, Pb, Sn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, S, P, such as the content of each element, 100 seconds to complete rapid determination of all elements, analysis of element content can range from PPM level to the pure elements and does not require complicated sample preparation process.It can also be used to detect sulfur content in crude oil, gasoline, diesel oil, residual oil, heavy oil and other petroleum products.


Edx-300 special X-ray fluorescence analyzer for lubricating oil wear metal meets the following domestic and foreign standards:

Meet: ASTM d6595-00 (2011) error requirements for determination of wear metals and contaminants in lubricating and hydraulic oils.

Determination of sulfur content in petroleum and petroleum products by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

D4294-023 ASTM method for determination of sulfur content in petroleum products (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, national standard in the United States) 2003-11-01

D6445-99 ASTM gasoline determination of sulfur content (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, national standard, USA) 2004-01-01

ISO 8754 determination of sulfur in petroleum products (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, international standard) 2003-07-15

Determination of sulfur content in automotive fuel oil for petroleum products (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, international standard) 2004-03-15



Instrument features:
  1. The range of elements measured: from sulfur (S) to uranium (U). 

    B. Analysis range of element content: PPM — 99.99% (different analysis range for different elements). 

    C. Simultaneous analysis elements: dozens of elements can be measured at one time.

    Measurement time: 60-200 seconds.

    Type of sample: lubricating oil, crude oil, gasoline, diesel, and other kinds of powder, rubber, solid, etc.

    F. Minimum detection limit: Fe, Pb, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Sn, Ba and other elements <3ppm.

    Using integrated industrial control embedded computer, touch screen operation, embedded micro printer, easy to use.

    With bar code scanner, it can conduct bar code coding after sampling at different bearing positions, and automatically input the sample number into the computer after scanning.

    The instrument is equipped with fixed footing, which can be used safely on ships, vehicles and other mobile carriers.

    Advanced instrument drift correction ensures long – term stability.

    High technical accuracy, good stability, low failure rate.

    Adopt multi-layer shielding protection, radiation safety is reliable.

    Windows Chinese application software, unique advanced analysis methods, complete and powerful functions, simple operation, easy to use.


Technical characteristics and parameters of the instrument
1 Technical characteristics
  1. The sample types are oil, liquid, powder, rubber, solid, etc.

    High efficiency long life X-ray tube, the index reaches the international advanced level.

    Electrical cooling si-pin detector, high resolution, high count rate, good energy linearity, energy resolution and spectral characteristics, peak back ratio.

D.Electronic circuit system with high signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Four automatic filters, software automatic switching, meet the application of various testing methods, reduce the background intensity near the analysis elements, improve the detection limit of analysis.

    The multi-parameter linear regression method can obviously suppress the absorption and enhancement effect between elements and improve the accuracy of analysis.

    High efficiency 3 d heat dissipation system: greatly provides the reliability and stability of the instrument.

    Radiation safety system: concealed design, software and hardware triple ray protection system.

2: Technical parameters
  1. Analysis elements: content of Ca, Fe, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mo, Ag, Sn, Cd, Ba, S, P and other elements.

    Detection limit: <3ppm.

    High voltage power supply: +50kV 1000 mua

    The probe has an optimal resolution of 145eV.

    E. Working environment: temperature: 10 ~ 30℃, humidity ≤85% (no condensation).

    External dimension: 550×416×253mm.

    Power supply: AC 220V ~ 240V, 50Hz

    Rated power: 200W

    Weight: about 25KG.




RH300 analyzer and other spectrometers

Test the performance comparison of wear metal elements in lubricating oil


Characteristics of the indicators 









Detection limitVery goodVery goodgoodVery goodVery good
Large particle analysis


Linear corresponding range20-3010-2020-3040-6040-60
Sample pretreatmentNeedNeedDon’t needNeedDon’t need
After sample measurementDamage to theDamage to theDamage to theDamage to theDon’t damage
Analysis time (min.)2-42011-21-5
Easy operationsimplecomplexmost simplecomplexsimple
Environmental protectionPoor (need to install exhaust equipment)Poor (need to install exhaust equipment)Poor (need to install exhaust equipment)Poor (need to install exhaust equipment)Good
consumablesAcetylene, hollow cathode lamp, solventArgon or nitrogen, graphite furnace, hollow cathode lamp, solventGraphite electrodeArgon, solventNO
Cost performancelowlowlowlowhigh
Whether the commonly usedNot commonly usedNot commonly usedcommonly usedNot commonly usedcommonly used








Examples of application
  1. Determination of wear metal elements and additive elements in lubricating oils

EDX-300 special X fluorescence analyzer for lubricating oil wear metal can be used to quickly detect the content of wear metal elements and additive elements in lubricating oil, such as Fe, Ca, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Mo, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ag, Sn and other elements, the detection limit is less than 3ppm.

The following figure is an example of the measurement spectrum of wear metal elements and additive elements in lubricating oil:


Examples of analysis results of wear metal in lubricating oil:


Sample nameAnalysis methodCaFeTiVCrMnNiCuMoZn 


RB0X fluorescence1.
Standard values0.
error1.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.46 1.04 0.34
RB42.8X fluorescence46.1650.6241.8540.0347.8448.7944.9148.3041.9348.5046.7
Standard values42.8042.8042.8042.8042.8042.8042.8042.8042.8042.8042.6
error3.36 7.82 -0.95 -2.77 5.04 5.99 2.11 5.50 -0.87 5.70 4.1
RB90X fluorescence96.5191.4382.5683.6483.8789.3987.5792.6487.6489.7493.40
Standard values90.0090.0090.0090.0090.0090.0090.0090.0090.0090.0090.0
error6.51 1.43 -7.44 -6.36 -6.13 -0.61 -2.43 2.64 -2.36 -0.26 3.40
RB316X fluorescence306.52307.20312.33312.95313.72309.57307.09307.67308.56302.54305.51
Standard values316.00316.00316.00316.00316.00316.00316.00316.00316.00316.00316.00
error-9.48 -8.80 -3.67 -3.05 -2.28 -6.43 -8.91 -8.33 -7.44 -13.46 -10.49
RB180X fluorescence193.34185.77183.25181.38179.99185.55186.67185.53192.14179.26183.41
Standard values180.00180.00180.00180.00180.00180.00180.00180.00180.00180.00180.00
error13.34 5.77 3.25 1.38 -0.01 5.55 6.67 5.53 12.14 -0.74 3.41
RB236X fluorescence226.86240.87238.54240.87239.68238.49238.56239.34246.31231.00234.12
Standard values236.00236.00236.00236.00236.00236.00236.00236.00236.00236.00236.00
error-9.14 4.87 2.54 4.87 3.68 2.49 2.56 3.34 10.31 -5.00 -1.88


20 repeated test results:


Sample nameCaFeTiVCrMnNiCuMoZnPb
Minimum value116.2488.2680.2880.5682.4584.4784.7988.8398.4486.5480.74
Standard deviation2.0091.1261.1661.0111.1131.1681.4261.4581.7271.4461.057



  1. Determination of sulfur in petroleum products, such as fuel oil


Edx-300 lube oil wear metal special X fluorescence analyzer can also quickly analyze the sulfur content in various petroleum products, such as crude oil, gasoline, diesel, heavy oil, etc.


Comparison results of sulfur content in oil samples:


Sample namemethodsS(%)
Fluorspar light0.0039
Poor miss0.0008
Fluorspar light0.0107
Poor miss0.0009
Fluorspar light0.0228
Poor miss0.0003
Fluorspar light0.0562
Poor miss0.0020
Fluorspar light0.1170
Poor miss-0.0010
Fluorspar light0.2354
Poor miss-0.0033
Fluorspar light0.4785
Poor miss0.0036
Fluorspar light0.9650
Poor miss0.0024
Fluorspar light1.9768
Poor miss-0.0035
Fluorspar light3.0264
Poor miss0.0140


Multiple measurement repeatability


Sample nameS(%)
minimum value0.0560
standard deviation0.00023


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